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Ung thư và Phòng ngừa : Glossary
Stomach Cancer
[2007-09-21 10:48] (998)

Outline

 

Stomach Cancer starts from its internal mucosa and gradually invades through the stomach wall, spreading to the surrounding lymph nodes. Furthermore, it spreads to the abdominal cavity and throughout the entire body until death.

 

Symptoms

 

At the early stages of stomach cancer, remarkable symptoms are not usually noted. Stomach cancer may show no symptom until the cancer has spread deeply. The most common symptoms of stomach cancer are pain localized to the upper abdomen and abdominal discomfort. Other symptoms include digestion, bloating or feeling of abdominal distension, nausea, vomiting, poor appetite, weight loss, hemoptysis, black scours, anemia, etc.

 

Cause, conditions and physiological

 

1. Environmental Factor

  • Dietary Factors (taking nitrate compound) : Salted foods, processed meat, highly-salted foods : Salted vegetable, salted fish, scorched foods or smoked foods
  • Helicobacter- infected
  • Chronic Atrophic Gastritis and Intestinal Dysplasia
  • Cigarette
  • Radiation Dose

2. Genetic factors

Cancer is a genetic disease but is only rarely inherited.  When there are 3 or more patients within your family members in a direct line (especially in case the cancer started before the age of 50 years), you are required to consult a medical specialist

 

Diagnosis

  1. Medical Examination by Interview : Reviewing Past Medical History in relation to Symptoms
  2. Physical Examination: Abdominal Examination, Digital Rectal Examination, etc.
  3. Verification of primary focus of stomach cancer
    • Endoscopy 
    • Upper GI, U.G.I series
  4. Finding out the degree of progression of stomach cancer and the degree of spread to the other internal organ and lymph nodes
    • Abdominal ultrasound examination
    • CT
    • Conventional Chest Radiography
    • Bone Scan

Progress, Prognosis

 

Prognostic factors of stomach cancer

  • Degree of invasion of the cancer cells into the stomach wall (T)
  • Degree of spread of the cancer cells into the surrounding lymph nodes (N)
  • Whether the cancer cells had spread to the other internal organs (M)

The stage of disease is divided depending on T, N and M.

  Ex) Stage 1a: Early stomach cancer; No lymph node metastasis  yet / Stage 3a: Cancer cells penetrated and passed through serosa, and spread to 4 lymph nodes

 

Complications

  • Once stomach cancer progresses, it blocks flow of material through the intestines causing bowel obstruction,
  • Necrosis of stomach results in the exposure of blood vessel which can cause bleeding. The patient may then develop shock, anemia, black scours, etc. 
  • Sometimes the patient is moved to the emergency room due to peritonitis caused by perforation of the stomach along with necrosis of stomach.

Treatment

  • It is most important to thoroughly cut the stomach by surgery. 
  • The most ideal treatment of all for stomach cancer is to detect it at its early stage and implement radical gastrectomy.
  • To treat the advanced stomach cancer, radical gastrectomy plus chemical therapy as its supportive treatment are concurrently implemented.
  • Once the stomach cancer reaches the stage 4, where it has spread to the entire body, the surgical operation is not helpful to extend the survival period.

Preventions

 

1. Initial Preventive Measures

  • Reduce the incidence of stomach cancer if possible by avoiding carcinogenic substances that may be obtained from food.
  • Recommended food: Fruit, fresh vegetable, high protein food, constant intake of vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin E, lightly salted bean paste potage, milk, ginseng
  • Non-recommended foods: Salted food, processed meat, scorched foods, smoked foods

2. Secondary Preventive Measure

Conduct a reasonable radical gastrectomy after detecting the stomach cancer at its earliest stage.

 

Consult a doctor in the following cases

 

Early stomach cancer can be cured by radical operation. Therefore it is most important to detect it at the early stages. When detected at its earliest stage, only a small portion of the stomach is removed through an operation using endoscopy or laparoscopy. Endoscopy is recommended for those who have non-specific symptoms at the upper gastrointestinal tract including upper abdominal pain, indigestion, etc. and for those suffering from constant symptoms even after undergoing the medical treatment. After the age of 40, you should undergo endoscopy every 1-2 years even if you have no symptoms.

Sắc đẹp & Phong cáchUng thư và Phòng ngừaLối sống lành mạnhSức khỏe tinh thần và stressGiới tính Nam/NữChủ đề nóng bỏng
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